Sold for $500

Sometimes I hear people saying, “My son/daughter used to disturb me while I was watching TV. There was a good sale on TVs so I bought one for them. Alhamdu lillah, now I can watch my favourite TV shows and they don’t disturb me any more because they watch their own shows. There are no more arguments in the house. I am relaxed.”

Really! Are we really relaxed?

Just think! We gave them a TV but what have we taken away from them?

We have no more interaction with our children, no cooperation, patience, sharing and family values. These things they learn when we share our ideas while we’re watching their favourite shows and when they’re watching ours.

All of these values we sold for $500 – the cost of a TV.

By Shahnaz Zafar

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Exciting Facts for Science and Social Studies Teachers – Part 2

In Part 1 we explored many innovations brought to us by Muslim scientists and inventors of the past.  Here are a few more items that I’m sure you’ll enjoy learning about.

11 Windmill:
The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

12 Vaccination:
The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

13 Fountain Pen:
The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

14 Numerical Numbering:
The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematiciansal-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825. Algebra was named after al- Khwarizmi’s book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah , much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci. Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi’s discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology.

15 Soup:
Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal – soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas – see No 4).

16 Carpets:
Carpets were regarded as part of Paradise by medieval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam’s non-representational art. In contrast, Europe’s floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were “covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned”.
Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly.

17 Pay Cheques:
The modern cheque comes from the Arabic saqq, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad.

18 Earth is in a spherical shape?
By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, "is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth". It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo. The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km – less than 200km out. The scholar al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139.

19 Rocket and Torpedo:
Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders. By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a "self-moving and combusting and a torpedo – a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

20 Gardens:
Medieval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.

By Zafar Momin

Reflections in the Eyes of a Child

Have you ever really looked into the eyes of a child?  You may be amazed at what you find there.

By Sonia Dabboussi

Exciting Facts for Science and Social Studies Teachers – Part 1

MUSLIM DISCOVERERS

From coffee to paycheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many innovations that we take for granted in daily life.  Recently I came across 20 of the most influential men of genius behind them that I would like to share here.  The aim is to cultivate among the young students of Al-Hijra School and other Muslim students around the world the feeling and realization about their rich and ancient history and to make them aware of the prominent persons who have served science and humanity at the time when darkness prevailed in other regions of the globe.  The same information can also be used by the Muslim teachers around the world while teaching Science and Social Studies.

01 Coffee:

The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry.  He boiled the berries to make the first coffee.  Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions.  By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645.  It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London.

The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffe and then English coffee.

02 Pin-Hole Camera:

The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham. He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first CameraObscura (from the Arab word qamara for a dark or private room). He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one.

03 Chess:
A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe – where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century – and eastward as far as Japan. The word rook comes from the Pers
ian rukh, which means chariot.

04 Parachute:
A thousand years before the Wright brothers a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts. He hoped to glide li
ke a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries. In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing – concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing.
Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

05 Shampoo:
Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade. But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and ar
omatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders’ most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not
wash. Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

06 Refinement:
Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam’s foremost scientist,Jabir ibn Hayyan , who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today – liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration. As well as discovering sulphur
ic and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them isharam, or forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry.

07 Shaft:
The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engin
e. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation. His 1206 Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.

08 Metal Armor:
Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China. But it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders’ metal armour and was an effective form of insulation – so muc
h so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland.

09 Pointed Arch:
The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals wa
s an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings. Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world’s – with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. Henry V’s castle architect was a Muslim.

10  Surgery:
Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same
design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon.
It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules. In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it.
Muslims doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.

By Zafar Momin

Parent-Teacher Night

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The report cards have gone home and now the phone is ringing. Keeping track of teachers’ appointments is very important but how can I co-ordinate those appointments without having to jump from place to place?

Keeping Track of Appointments

1.  Make an Excel sheet with the teachers’ names going down the first column, then along the top, make a column for each time slot; that way you can see at a glance which teachers have what appointments open.

2.  Make another Excel sheet for each of the teachers so that when their schedules are full you can print them so that they can prepare for the parents who will be meeting with them. This sheet should have the teachers’ name at the top and three columns: the first will have the time, the second the student’s name and the third the student’s grade. This list can also be posted on the classroom door so that parents can see what time their appointment is at.

3.  Make another table that shows which rooms the teachers can be seen in and post it in various locations in the school. It is a good idea to give a copy of this schedule to each teacher.

By Sharon McKee

Report Cards Made Easy (Secretaries, this one’s for you!)

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It’s hard to believe our first semester is coming to a close and as office administrators we know what means report cards need to be done – hectic days ahead! My first experience doing report cards was somewhat disorganized and believe me after such and experience I put my thinking cap on and figured out a way to make it go smoothly the next semester.

Steps for organized report cards

Step One: Preparation

  1. Prepare envelopes for each student that will be used for all three semesters.
  2. Put those envelopes into file folders marked for each class.
  3. At the same time create another file folder with the classes marked on the front. This folder will be used to send the report cards to the class for distribution and later for the envelopes that will be returned to the teachers. In this folder staple a class list produced in Excel with four columns. Mark the columns as follows:

Student’ Name Term 1 Term 2 Term 3

John Smith YES/NO YES/NO YES/NO

  1. When the envelopes and forms are returned to the teacher s/he will circle the appropriate answer and return the folder to the office. Remove page 3 from the envelope and place it in the folder, put the envelope back into the first file ready for Term Two.
  2. Use the sheet inside this folder to contact parents who have not returned the envelope or third page.
  3. Check the third page to see if parents are requesting an interview for parent teacher night and call to set up the appointment.
  4. Once you have checked the sheets and removed the envelopes pass the file to the Principal to review the parent’s remarks.

Step Two: Time to Print!

  1. Place the printed report cards into a pocket folder with each grade marked on the front of the folder.
  2. Take the printed report cards to the principal to be signed. Once the principal has signed the report cards take them to the homeroom teacher for his/her signature.
  3. Make a photocopy of the signed report cards and keep this in the left pocket of the folder ready to be placed in the student’s record file. Original copies go temporarily into the right pocket of the folder.
  4. Take the original copy and place it in the student’s envelope (previously prepared in Step 1) and place it into the file prepared with the class list in it (also from Step 1).
  5. Send them to the classes on report card day with a smile!

By Sharon McKee

But I have to teach gym!

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If you Google the words ‘how to teach’ you’ll get some interesting results.  You’ll find out how to teach handwriting, or how to teach baby sign language, or even how to teach teens to drive safely, but how about just how to teach?  The most important part is missing.

Here’s Tip #1 to get you started:

One of the most basic rules of thumb is to teach what you love.  But I know you don’t always have that choice.  You adore elementary math, but you’ve also got physical education in your timetable.

“How am I supposed to love to teach phys. ed. when I hardly even know which end of a tennis racquet to hold?” you ask?  Here’s the secret:  you find something, anything, that you even remotely enjoy about teaching gym and focus on that when you’re with your students.  Maybe you think it’s really interesting to see the patterns in the racquet strings (think art), or how a slight twist of the wrist creates such a magnified change in the direction of the tennis ball (think science).  Choose what you’d like, but find something you truly enjoy and keep that idea in your mind.

The positive feelings that you have while you’re focusing on your wrist, and on all of the wrists of your students, will be passed onto your young learners.  Before you know it your class will become more interesting and more enjoyable for all because those good feelings you’re emanating will become associated with tennis, with phys. ed., and with you.

Then the rest of the classes from here on out are smooth sailing…until basketball season.

By Sonia Dabboussi